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Data Proves Critical Need for Employee Mental Health Services that Go Beyond Traditional EAPs

Younger Millennial and Gen Z Employees are Three Times More Likely to Experience Psychological Distress than Those Over 40 

Emerging adulthood (18-29 years) is a period marked by change and self-exploration, but numerous characteristics of this phase in life increase individuals’ vulnerability to mental health problems. Naluri’s data on the mental health status of 8,000 members over the past 2 years reflects this and indicates that, in terms of psychological well-being, the COVID-19 pandemic has disproportionately impacted adults under the age of 30 compared to older age groups. Luckily, many of the risk factors driving age differences in mental health are malleable, and key prevention strategies coupled with timely interventions can promote positive psychological health.

Generational Differences in State of Mental Health

An analysis of the data collected using the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale shows that the number of high-risk individuals – those experiencing severe and very severe symptoms in at least one dimension of mental health – is 3.6 times higher among 20- to 29-year-olds, at 39.5%, compared to adults 50 and above, among whom the rate is 10.8% (Figure 1). Chi-square tests, which test whether categorical variables are related or independent from one another, indicate that each age group, except the 50 and over group, has a significantly lower number of individuals at high risk than the age group below (X2s = 55.93 to 345.76, ps < 0.001, ɸs = 0.12 to 0.29).

Figure 1Distribution of risk levels based on DASS-21 (Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale) scores across age groups

Graph to show distribution of risk levels based on DASS-21 (Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale) scores across age groups


Moreover, an examination of the rates of psychological distress over time shows that the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health has been greatest on 20- to 29-year-olds (Figure 2). While rates of high risk individuals increased significantly in this age group from 33.6% before the pandemic (i.e., August 2019 to 10th March 2020) to 41.8% since the pandemic was declared (i.e., 11th March 2020 to July 2021; X2 = 12.94, p < .001, ɸ = 0.075), these rates decreased in the three other age groups, although the differences were not statistically significant (X2s = 0.75 to 2.65, ps > 0.104, ɸs = 0.028 to 0.033).

Figure 2: Proportion of individuals with a high risk of psychological distress before the pandemic and since the pandemic was declared, across age groups

Graph to show proportion of individuals with high risk of psychological distress before the pandemic and since the pandemic was declared, across age groups

A closer look at the individual dimensions of mental health (depression, anxiety, and stress) indicates that, at extremely severe levels, depression is 7.1x more prevalent in the youngest age group compared to the oldest, while anxiety and stress are 4x and 3.7x more prevalent, respectively, in the youngest age group (Figure 3). In contrast, at severe levels, stress is 7.3x more prevalent in 20- to 29-year-olds compared to 50+ year-olds, and anxiety and depression are 2.4x and 3.7x more prevalent.

Figure 3: Proportion of individuals with severe and extremely severe symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress in 20-to 29-year-olds and over 50-year-olds

Graph to show proportion of individuals with severe and extremely severe symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress in 20-to 29-year-olds and over 50-year-olds

Depression and stress are therefore the biggest drivers of the age differences in psychological distress, while the prevalence of anxiety is less disparate between age groups. This is reflected in the fact that many of the risk factors underlying age differences in mental health are most likely to impact depression and stress.

The Role of Resilience and Sense of Control

Emerging adults (those in the period between adolescence and stable adulthood, or 18 to 29 years) tend to have less developed coping skills and lower personal resilience to deal with the challenging circumstances of emerging adulthood (Leipold et al), which include heightened instability and uncertainty. Coping strategies are the efforts one makes to manage the demands that they perceive as exceeding their own resources, while resilience encompasses a constellation of characteristics that allow an individual to adapt to the stressors they encounter.

Coping strategies that involve avoiding active confrontation of problems, such as dissociating from the stressor or wallowing in negativity without addressing the stressor are maladaptive and are associated with poorer outcomes. In contrast, adaptive strategies are those that involve direct action and attempts to deal with stressors, such as seeking social support or making efforts to generate solutions to a problem.

As individuals mature and encounter situations that provide opportunities to learn and acquire personal and social coping skills through experience, their coping strategies evolve towards more adaptive styles. Without these skills, however, younger adults are likely to experience stress during challenging circumstances especially acutely.

The job roles that emerging adults occupy may also put them at increased risk of psychological distress. Higher-level professional and managerial staff have a lower tendency for depression and anxiety than general workers (Razali et al., 2019; Yeoh et al), which may be due to differences in decision-making power. Perceived lack of power can lead individuals to hold an external locus of control (i.e., perceive that their circumstances are determined by external forces), which is in turn associated with poorer mental health, particularly depression (Krampe et al).

Feelings of powerlessness can also be exacerbated by involuntary changes in one’s work and relationships, which are frequent in emerging adulthood. This is especially relevant in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, during which the unemployment rate among under-25s in Malaysia was reported to be almost 4 times that among older workers (Cheng), leading to high job insecurity in this age group. The sense of lack of control fuelled by job insecurity can in turn negatively impact job satisfaction and well-being (Elst et al).

The younger generation may also have been more negatively affected than older adults by the move to remote work during the pandemic. Interpersonal development opportunities, including networking and practical training, are especially important for building young professionals’ confidence, as well as their relationships in the workplace. Individuals beginning new roles remotely during the pandemic are also especially vulnerable to the isolation caused by the lack of in-personal socialisation of remote contexts, and these individuals are more likely to be in the 20- to 29-year-old age group.

Employees working remotely are also more likely to experience workplace fear of missing out, which in turn is associated with higher rates of work burnout (Budnick et al., 2020). Workplace fear of missing out refers to the fear that one might miss valuable career opportunities when away or disconnected from work and it encompasses both relational exclusion (fear that professional relationships may suffer) and informational exclusion (fear of being uninformed of relevant task information; Budnick et al., 2020). Individuals beginning new roles remotely during the pandemic are especially vulnerable to the social and information isolation of remote contexts, and these individuals are more likely to be in the 20- to 29-year-old age group.

The differing importance of in-person work across generations is evidenced by a recent survey reporting that younger employees are more likely to want to return to the office full-time than older workers, who express a preference for a hybrid working model (Totem). The absence of professional development and socialisation opportunities may lead to low confidence, as well as a depressed mood, and may hinder the development of adaptive coping skills.

Managing a Multigenerational Workforce

Given the pandemic's impact on younger workers’ mental health and the effects of employee mental illness on productivity (Hassard et al), it is of utmost importance that organisations provide psychological support to their employees.

With regard to prevention, employers can help promote the acquisition and development of adaptive coping skills by providing young adults with adequate opportunities and support, for example from mentors, to acquire these skills. Resilience training can significantly increase resilience and improve mental health and well-being outcomes, including depression, stress, and anxiety, as well as psychosocial outcomes such as self-efficacy and work satisfaction (Robertson et al).

For all teams, and particularly those working remotely, employers should strive to foster an encouraging and nurturing environment that emphasises connectedness between employees. This can help combat isolation among employees and provide the necessary social support to buffer the impacts of work stress on psychological distress. Team leaders should be trained to spot early signs of burnout and disengagement and proactively manage energy levels and focus of each team member by creating blocks of time for uninterrupted individual work (without any meetings) and explicitly checking that work that needs to continue after-hours is limited to 1-2 evenings a week only.

Younger workers can also benefit from leaders and managers moving from traditional command-and-control authoritative styles to a coaching style that uses reflective questioning to encourage thinking and creativity and fosters a culture of psychological safety that makes it OK for team members to raise problems even if they do not have a solution.

Given that a greater sense of purpose can reduce the impact of stressors on one’s affect (Hill et al., 2018), leaders can also harness tremendous energy and temper the distress associated with fear of missing out, among their younger team members by nurturing a strong sense of purpose and commitment in their teams.

The impact of working remotely can further be addressed by strengthening the support provided by the organisation to its workers, for example improving managerial support, working conditions, and fairness. By increasing perceived organisational support (employees’ subjective feeling that their organisation cares about their welfare and work dedication), these strategies can also cushion the impacts of high job demands on well-being, therefore reducing the likelihood of burnout (Xu & Fang)

Due to the enduring nature of psychological illness, early identification and timely intervention among individuals already experiencing high levels of psychological distress is also crucial. Moreover, the provision of accessible mental health resources is critical from a recruitment and retention perspective, as more than half of Gen Z employees report the availability of these resources is a criterion they consider when selecting a job or deciding to stay with an organisation (Coe et al., 2021). Employers should therefore facilitate access to professional treatment for staff and should normalise help-seeking in order to destigmatise mental illness in the workplace.

Naluri has developed a mental health advocacy programme to help organisations create a workplace culture where employees are trained to identify early signs and symptoms of burnout, depression or anxiety, are taught how to approach and support a colleague who may be in distress, and how to escalate when a situation is critical. It is important to shift the burden of seeking help from the individual employee feeling overwhelmed and distressed and make it a collective organisational responsibility to look out for and support each other.

Through AI technology and its team of experienced psychologists and counsellors, Naluri is optimally positioned to identify individuals at risk of mental health problems and to provide interventions to those in need. Naluri’s proactive and personalised approach ensures that individuals receive a level of care that is tailored to their need: be that self-guided learning or long-term structured support from healthcare professionals.

For employers whose diverse and multi-generational workforces can have highly individualised needs, Naluri’s comprehensive employee assistance programmes provide an effective, accessible, and affordable digital solution to ensure all employees are at their best.

For more information on how to support your employees’ mental health and transform your organisation into a healthier work environment, contact



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Elst, T. V., De Cuyper, N., & De Witte, H. (2011). The role of perceived control in the relationship between job insecurity and psychosocial outcomes: moderator or mediator?. Stress and Health, 27(3), e215-e227.

Yeoh, S. H., Tam, C. L., Wong, C. P., & Bonn, G. (2017). Examining depressive symptoms and their predictors in Malaysia: Stress, locus of control, and occupation. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1411.

Cheng, C. (2020). Pushed to the margins: The unequal impacts of the COVID-19 crisis on marginalised Malaysian workers. Institute of Strategic and International Studies (ISIS) Malaysia.

Totem. (2021). Forgotten hires: How to get onboarding right?.

Xu, Z., & Yang, F. (2021). The impact of perceived organizational support on the relationship between job stress and burnout: a mediating or moderating role?. Current Psychology, 40(1), 402-413.

Hassard, J., Teoh, K. R., Visockaite, G., Dewe, P., & Cox, T. (2018). The cost of work-related stress to society: A systematic review. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 23(1), 1.

Krampe, H., Danbolt, L. J., Haver, A., Stålsett, G., & Schnell, T. (2021). Locus of control moderates the association of COVID-19 stress and general mental distress: Results of a cross-sectional survey in two large samples from Norway, Germany, and Austria. 

Robertson, I. T., Cooper, C. L., Sarkar, M., & Curran, T. (2015). Resilience training in the workplace from 2003 to 2014: A systematic review. Journal of occupational and organizational psychology, 88(3), 533-562.

​​Razali, S., Yung-An, C., Nazali, M. I. M., & Nawawi, H. M. (2019). Determining Predictors of Depression and Anxiety for Prevention of Common Mental Illness among Staff of an Academic Institution in Malaysia. Asian Journal of Quality of Life, 4(17), 1-13

Budnick, C. J., Rogers, A. P., & Barber, L. K. (2020). The fear of missing out at work: examining costs and benefits to employee health and motivation. Computers in Human Behavior, 104, 106161.

Hill, P. L., Sin, N. L., Turiano, N. A., Burrow, A. L., & Almeida, D. M. (2018). Sense of purpose moderates the associations between daily stressors and daily well-being. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 52(8), 724-729.

Coe, E., Cordina, J., Enomoto, K., Mandel, A., Stueland, J. (2021). National surveys reveal disconnect between employees and employers around mental health need. McKinsey & Company.

Written by:
Dr Tiffanie Ong and Jehanita Jesuthasan